Wendy Ng's Blog

Creativity and lateral thinking

BSM 701 Individual Reflective Report by Wendy Ng

Writer’s Profile
1.     Introduction
1.1    Background
1.2    Objectives
2.     Description of my blog and the best entries
2.1     Post 1: A bit less thinking a bit more doing!
2.3    Post 2: The six thinking hat
3.    Application of GROW model
3.1    Goal
3.2    Reality
3.3.1    Obstacles
3.3.2     Options
3.4    Way forward
4.    Conclusion
Reference
Appendix

Writer Profile

Before reading my report, you are welcome to read my profile below in order to have a better understanding of the report.

My name is Wendy and I am going to be 24 years old. I have never got too far from the cosmopolitan world. I was born and rise up in Hong Kong and moved to central London since I was 17. I speak 3 languages fluently and that leave me with a very international background, a blended culture and an open mind. There are all very useful for social networking and later in my career development.

I very much considered myself as a creative individual. My background in is Graphic Design and I am currently in a postgraduate course studying the Creative Economy specialises in Management.

Apart from studying, I very much enjoy working. I learned a lot from my work experiences, they make me understand that in order to work and stand out in the creative industry, excepted the talents and creative skills, it is very the important to have good self-management and an approach of entrepreneurship. I believe this is the key for success and this is the main reason I took my postgraduate course and work towards my goal.

1.1 Background

This report is a personal assessment for the module titled Creative Economy in a postgraduate course at Kingston University (‘MACE’ will be used to represent the course in the following text). The module lasted from September to April this year; there are 4 hours lecture per week through out the course. Alongside this assessment report, MACE’s students have largely work with teams for their group assignment.

The context of this report is based on two of best entries from my blog according to my own opinion. The titles of the entries are: 1. ‘A bit less thinking a bit more doing!’ dated on 24 Feb 2010, and 2. ‘The six thinking hat’ dated on 5 Mar 2010.

In the beginning of MACE, we are assigned to set up a personal online blog and put up regular entries as class reflections. The decision to use these 2 posts is because the content of these posts covered the four topics in the GROW model, and more importantly, they are very inspiring among the other entries. Apart from the entries, a rightful amount of the context of this report, in the section of the GROW model, is based on the reflection and experience I had with my team CreativControl.

CreativControl is the name of the company that I have set up with my course mates in MACE. The team worked together to open and registered a business through Young Enterprise and close down the business at the end of April.  Through the development of the business, my team had successfully managed to produce and sale a product of a neck pillow called ‘Comma’.

The students in MACE have their freedom to choose and form there our own team at the beginning of the course. Most of the team including ours are successfully formed on the one-day dating event that the class hosted. The aim of this event was to find and choose the best teammates through different spectrum and by a few minutes conversation.

1.2 Objectives

The objectives of this report are firstly, to critically evaluate to what extent I have developed my creative and entrepreneurial management behaviours. Access the skills and attributes that I have learn by the experience with Creativcontrol. Secondly, a more important objective of this report is to examine the impact from what has happened and illustrate how these will help me to archive my career goals in the future on completion of my postgraduate course.

2. Description of my blog and the best entries

There are in 29 posts published in my blog, total views add up to 1457 till the date of 12 May 2010. The blog statistics revealed that the post ‘How nature does sleeping?’ has got the most traffic from the blog. However, this post is not chosen to be my best entries because there were no linkages between the content and my career goal. Besides, it does not covered all the topics of the GROW model. Although I agree that this post is very innovative.

2.1 Post 1: ‘A bit less thinking a bit more doing!

The first best entry is about my reflection after coming back from the New Year break. I decided one of my aims for 2010 is that I need to think less and act more. For instance when I am working for a creative project, I got to step out the thinking bubbles, leave the comfort zone and start creating some work! Thinking too much before actually produce anything is one of the weaknesses of a creator. It reminds me that through out the MACE course, when different teams are still in the process of product development, how many times had the our teacher emphasis on the importance of making a prototype.

My own experience from the past and also with Creativcontrol has also proven the point. I described how I used to be when I was in Art University, going through a creative process. I was also afraid and avoid taking risky ideas. This shown my weaknesses to my approach of leadership, and therefore I want it to be improve.

The entry also talked about how a team can come up with better ideas by observations and by making discussions on our defaults. Default is the standard of image and thought that came across our mind; it is the majority within a group of people. For instance, people from different cultures usually have different defaults.

From revising the post I realised the connection of this post to the topic of creative tension. Culture differences are one of the major causes of creative tension. According to the freedictiomary.com, creative tension means ‘a situation where disagreement or discord ultimately gives rise to better ideas or outcomes.’ The relationship between disagreement and the effectiveness of ‘creative tension’ are supported by a lot of published works. Arthur Koestler describes ‘the point of connection between unfamiliar elements is where the act of creation occurs.’ He believes that scientific discovery depends upon ‘syntheses’ where artistic creativity depends on ‘juxtaposition’ (Bilton, 2007).

Additionally, from the book Management and Creativity (2007), Chris Bilton believed that within a creative team, the opposition and difference are the starting point for new and unexpected combination of ideas, and it is where creative tension begins.

the process of cultural production in the creative industries requires an ability to switch between different ways of working and to connect the detail with the big picture. Such an internalized diversity is only possible if organizations and teams can tolerate opposition and difference.

In other words, when a team is able to share and accept different opinions among each other, this is when the team starts and generates better idea.

2.2 Post 2: ‘Six thinking Hat?’

This entry also shared the theme with the first entry – culture differences and creative tension. But on top of that, this entry raises the concern on the need of different styles and approaches of management, in order to fit into cities with different culture.

Writing this post made me realise the important of innovation in an organisation or and for a country. Innovation seems like the only way for a city to improve and to compete among each other, for instance, it has the potential to raise the GDP’s of a country. Innovation sustains successful business ideas and prolongs their business.

The post has mentioned the theory of De Bono’ Six thinking hats, particularly to the international thinkers. It is worth mentioning because by applying this method to myself, it makes me understand my strengths and weaknesses in respect to thinking style and entrepreneur behaviours. According to the definition of the six thinking hats in mindtool.com (Appendix 1), I should have further developed my skills of White and Red hat.

Basically, white hat thinking is about focus on evidence and data, quantitative and qualitative researches are very important to support an idea. And learn how to rely to this research can make outcome more liable. This can also defect my habit of avoiding high risk, since historic data and research are the best tools to reduce risks of a creative project.

3.            Application of GROW model

GROW model works as a process or a technique for an individual, however part of the strengths of the model applies equally well for groups’ session (Turner, 2009).  According to Turner (2009), the model is described as a ‘simple and yet powerful framework for navigating a route through a coaching session, as well as providing a means of finding your way when lost.’ Therefore, it will be very useful for this report to evaluate and reflect my personal performance for MACE.

3.1            Goal

In this part, I will introduce my specific aim and 3 objectives. The desired outcome is to be achieved with the accomplishment of the objectives.

Aim

To have found a first permanent job I enjoy paying £20-22,000 per year (at least HKD$230,000), build a good social network and to reside in Hong Kong by the end of June 2011. I am aiming to work for a creative position at first and when opportunities come, move up to a director level.

Objective 1
Broaden my career choices according to my spectrum (Graphic design/ creative economy/ Management). Previously I was only suited to jobs based around practical design skills, but now I have the knowledge to manage these areas as well as work in them. I describe this as horizontal integration of my career. The timescale I set to achieve this goal is before august of 2010.

Objective 2

Have a vision on the types of company that I would like to work for. For instance, companies in different size, reputation, types of organisation structure and types of organisation culture. Although the majority of companies in the creative industry are mostly SMEs, there are global companies such as WPPs or local success Mother. In addition other companies that are not considered to be in the creative industry may have their in-house creative departments such as Apple, IBM and Virgin.

Objective 3

Develop and apply entrepreneurial management behaviours, which involves indentifying opportunity, creativity and innovation and taking risks. A time scale would not apply into this objective since I consider it to be a continuous improvement.

3.2             Reality

The current part time job that I am working now would not provide me opportunities for a full time and permanent job. The music merchandising company is on discussion stage with another organisation about merging two companies. The chance of taking me on board after the merge is fairly low because they will then have enough in-house designers after joining the workforce.

I was in a dilemma whether to stay in the UK or going back to my home country Hong Kong to seek my first permanent job. The fact that the economy in China is booming, working in Hong Kong will be a very good platform for me to reach the business in China. Therefore I decided to move back after I graduate, although this decision is still very fragile sometimes.

I am aiming at building a good social network in Hong Kong, the fact that I have been away from Hong Kong for almost 8 years. I have lost in touch with some of my good friends and relatives. Also, my social networking skill is not perfect at the moment although generally I am a confidence person.

It is important to have in mind how much salary I am expecting for my first job in order to provide a clear picture for myself. I have based the amount of an average entry level designer in the UK, however, according to Coroflot Designer Salary Survey 2009, the average salary for a graphic designer at the entry level in Hong Kong is only HKD$200,900, which is 13% lower than the sum that I am aiming for.

When I am applying for a more business-oriented job, the employees consider me as an applicant with creative background and have not enough business knowledge, regardless my postgraduate course.

In terms of the approach to entrepreneurship, I have gain better knowledge in managing creativity and innovation after studying this course. However, I am not sure my performance in identifying opportunity and risk taking.

When my team Creativcontrol are looking for ways to raise our capital, my teammate Oleg was managed to find a customer is willing to pay us by designing his company logo and letterhead. And that amount of the salary became very important to our business in terms of production cost later on. I see that as a good example of identifying opportunity and good social net working skills.

3.3.1            Obstacles

My reality statements revealed that the obstacles that stopping me getting from where I am now to where I want can are coming from myself and other forces like environment.

I have been living in London for a long time; I love and get used to the environment and culture. I enjoy the living style and the freedom I have here, which I will not get in Hong Kong. I fear to give up my friendships and future in here, going back to Hong Kong seems like moving into a new environment for me although it is my homeland.

Obstacles come from myself includes my personality and social skills. I should be aware that sometimes I am being too frank and blunt in conversations with others. There is a different way of communication with colleagues and friends. Also, my part time job and studies has kept me busy form socialising with friends. These could deterrent my relations to my current friends and prevent me to build a better social network.

My creative background and skills are my spectrum; they are keeping me away from applying jobs with more of a business side. I have received comments from a recent interview that the organisation are worried that since I am coming from a creative background, they will need to spend a long time to teach me skills for certain skills.

I am not leaving the UK till November 2010, after I have finished writing and handed in my dissertation. Without being in Hong Kong, the only way for me to look up vacancies is through the Internet, as well as making contacts that will be useful for my career. It would have a better result if I am in Hong Kong and things can be done face to face.

One of the best ways to learn and develop my approach to entrepreneurship is to read from the success and model from the past. I read a lot articles online and some useful blogs by using the Google search. However, I don’t have a reading habit in general and I am lacking a list of websites or blogs that I think its worth for visiting everyday. I had also discovered a lot of self-help models and related theories through studies, which could help me to develop and maintain my skills.

3.3.2 Options

My options to defect the fear from moving back to Hong Kong would be to discuss the issues with other people, who had also studied in UK and moved back to Hong Kong in these recent years. By hearing their experiences I would know more about what I am expecting for my future.

Develop a regular schedule to connect with friends through different channels. This will help me to recreate and maintain a good social network.

Acquire more knowledge in the business side. It can be done by reading books and reading online materials.

Research on possible companies to work for, find out the job responsibilities and requirements for related jobs. Evaluate my own experiences in work experience / internships. Make a list of the people that I could contact to and asks for suggestions and recommendations.

Take advantages of delicious.com, to organise and save the web pages that I think it would be useful in the future. Also, allocated a daily timeslot that I would focus on reading online information.

According to growthink.com (2010), there is Four Step to Entrepreneurship, which I found it very useful. After identify opportunity, we need to analyse it. It was suggested to keep a journal of opportunities that we discovered each times, and access the likelihood for it to success. Then after that, we can select the most potential one by valuing their cost. After making a firm decision, entrepreneur should stay focus and executed his idea, work very hard towards the selected opportunity.

Understanding the four steps to entrepreneurship enables entrepreneurs to better understand the path that they are embarking upon. It is a path filled with potential pitfalls, but also filled with tremendous excitement, satisfaction and potential to build enormous value.

3.4            Way forward

Start from the week on 17 May, there will not be any class from the University; I will only have to work 2 days per week for my part time job. I should take advantage for this free time and set up a schedule for myself for the next 5 months. The schedule should be on a daily basis, organise the timetable to read online materials apart other from doing research and writing for the dissertation.

I should also take the advices from Growthink to keep ‘a journal of hat details the myriad of opportunities they come across each day.’ Although I don’t have any plans to set up my own business in a short time, but eventually I might and moreover, it is very important for me to understand and obtain the entrepreneurial behavours, and to work in the creative industries.

On a weekly basis, I should set up couple of meetings to reconnect with the friends I have met from University and also the ex-colleagues that I have met from work. These can help me to expand and maintain my social network. I should also review my CV and keep my online portfolio update. Research for job opportunities and send applications, since the part-time job I am having now are not entirely stable.

Conclusion

This report has helped me to identify my career goal. I have a clearer picture of what I want to do after I graduated from MACE. In a very large extent, I have further developed my skills and knowledge of entrepreneurship. I have recognised my weaknesses and found my options to improve it by using the GROW model. So far, I have no intention to start my own business; my goal is to find a permanent job in a creative position and work towards the stairs to a director level.

Reference
Books

Bilton, C., (2007) Management and Creativity. Singapore: Blackwell Publishing

Wilson, N., & Gurling, C., (2007) Managing Creativity and Innovation. Great Britain: Kingston University

E-resources

Coroflot (2009) ‘Coroflot Designer Salary Survey.’ Core77. Inc. (Online). Available at: http://www.coroflot.com/designersalary/detailed_results.asp (Accessed: 3 May 2010)

Griffiths, B., (2007) The GROW Model Available at: http://www.bobgriffiths.com/grow_model.htm (Accessed: 3 May 2010)

Growthink (2010) Becoming an Entrepreneur: Four Steps to Entrepreneurship. Available at: http://www.growthink.com/businessplan/help-center/four-steps-entrepreneurship
(Accessed: 3 May 2010)

Kotelnikov, V. (2001) ‘What is GROW Model?’ 1000ventures.com. (Online). Avaliable at: http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/coaching_grow.html (Accessed: 3 May 2010)

Mind Tools Ltd (2010) Six thinking Hat. Available at: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm (Accessed: 3 May 2010)

thefreedictionary (2010) The free dictionary by Farlex Avaliable at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/creative+tension (Accessed: 30 March 2010)

Turner, M. (2009) Mike the mentor. Available at: http://www.mentoringforchange.co.uk/classic/index.php (Accessed: 2 May 2010)

Also available in pdf format Reflective report

Filed under: Uncategorized

Coolest elevator

Found this in Mace Library: coolest-elevator

LOVE it, it reminds what I did years ago!


Sometimes we just add a wall art on where we always passed by, it makes such a difference! Good way to promote compare to just a bill board ads. I particularly like vinyl wall art. I wish that I will have a chance in the future to paint a wall!

Filed under: Uncategorized

Assignment on March 17 – My favourite nesta idea

THE OPEN BOOK OF SOCIAL INNOVATION BY NESTA.

Tip #139.

A working museum. A workplace should provide a clear and engaging insight into the work that goes on and culture that rests within the organization. Some ventures go further and make their workplace into a working gallery or museum. They demonstrate much of their work visually, through photos and graphs. Some arrange tours and generate income from them. For example, Vauban in Freiburg, Germany, and Bo01 in Malmo, Sweden, are examples of low-carbon communities which allow visitors to touch, use and see the results, as well as see the work of the employees and staff. It is always a useful exercise for a venture.

We have chances to see their work in the public gallery or museum, but what about their studio? or home office? Even better. I believe visiting people’s work space is a very intimate thing, its like looking at the very raw drawings and rough design. It must be amazing to know how the final product was develop from sketch. Conversely, if I know people are visiting where I work normally, I would have try even harder to express what I want to say through art and design. Let people feels like they are in a wonderland. Also, hopefully by looking the initial ideas of my work, I will gain more recognitions and inspiration feedback. After all, life is about learning from each other.

Filed under: Design thinking, Innovation

Reflection on Cathrine’s class (session 3) Part II

Why innovation matters?

Does it bring direct investments to countries? (to the GDP and FDI?)

Why UK has lost their competitiveness? ( is it lack of productivity innovation)

The changing nature of domestic and international competition?

(legal issues, patent, intellectual property rights)

(the R&D, education, clusters? tax, rewarding, incentives)

Obvious example are like how swiss are in making watch…italy are good in shoe making…industries should remain on the top of the game, which leave the rest of the country a question, if they want to put itself on the map of the design? HOW??

Filed under: Uncategorized

Reflection on Cathrine’s class (session 3) Part I

Question: Can you actually create a context of creativity and innovation?

This is the graph created by Thomas Pans, introduce in the class in related to the question.

During the class we define innovation from creativity. Innovation begins with creative ideas, it is a process and a opportunities for value creation.

We also identified different types of innovation. (Check the powerpoint presentation) The exercise we did in class was very useful. I didn’t use to know these varies types. For different types of  paradigm innovation: changes are in the underlying mental structure/ model which frame the business, it comes form the company.

Example1: small size shampoo doses for developing countries. it is a incremental position innovation because it is a steps by steps innovation not the radical innovation.

Example2: white led lighting (radical production)

Example3: online health service (incremental product)

Filed under: Innovation, Uncategorized

The six thinking hat

In this week Cathrine’s class (session 2), we continue to explore innovation and find out why innovation are so important to a city.

This topic of this class interests me a lot since I was born in a cosmopolitan city as well as living in one now (Hong Kong and London). I traveled regularly to China with my parents, to the less developed part. I love the totally different things in these places and it is always been my interest to find out why and where does people want to live and pursuit a creative career.

Important points to discuss after class:

1. ‘Creativity as a multidimensional process which requires combination of thinking styles’ -this statement is true in a very large extent. The fact that it is not that difficult to live/work with people with different culture backgrounds. The history and prosperous of the cities have successfully attracted professionals or people who seek new geographical opportunities. Whereas if you go to a less developed city, For instance, Zhongshan, a city in a prefecture-level city Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province in southern China. Seeing foreigners in the high street is not a common thing yet,  also a lot less labour are come from other countries too. However, major city like beijing and shanghai of course has a different story.

My opinions might have bias since I have been out of my home country for 7 years, the people and things evolve around me are naturally international, or conversely, I have already quite blend in to the a second culture.

2. Coming up with new ideas demand effective thinking. – This is a true statement and simply I think that effective thinking  help to pushes the ideas forward, it values up the idea instead of degrading it. Very similar to innovation, it prolongs the life of an idea by refreshing or adding new elements to it, so it adapts to the current environment.

3. Be able to switch through different thinking style (especially for international thinkers) – During the class we got introduced the De Bono Six’s thinking hat. A thinking tool for group discussion or individuals. It is quite common in the UK innovative sector. It shows attempts of parallel thinking which is very different from the ordinary unstructured thinking. In a group situation, it is recommend to think through the project with different hats, avoid individuals converge with the same ‘hat’ of thinking.

This class inspire me to one of the possible dissertation topics, where does creative talents like to work? Does different styles of management in different culture had affected their choice? Is it a advantage or a disadvantage for a creative team to have a international background? Apart form this, recruitment policy of a company probably plays a very important parts in this area as well.

Filed under: Innovation

A bit less thinking and a bit more doing!

Reflections after New Year Break:

From the Welcome back Jan 15 post on mace blog, Corrine has written

It (creativity) was all about breaking away from default, observing and pulling two seemingly unconnected ideas together. That is a big part of creativity… culture will change the default from one person to another

I want to emphasis the point how culture will change our default image of an objects. Weighting from my childhood, my default image of ‘bread’ is Chinese hot dog bun.

Therefore I really understand how culture can influences us in different way. If we are working in a team for a creative project, this could be a very brilliant thing. We can have a diverge range of ideas in a very short time. However, if communication failed within the team, it can still be very difficult for a creative project to work.

The one good idea will not get accepted and develop since the person who present or receive the idea do not understand each other clearly. So with culture, it can be a good influence or bad influence too.

Also, from the design thinking checklist, I realised with my team Creativcontrol, I found my own innovation blocking behaviors and I hope that I can eliminate them in order to improve our overall performances as a team.

> not iterative (project dies because unwilling to build on weaknesses)

My of my weaknesses is I am very easy to give up on unrealistic idea, despite I have realised this problem and trying to improve. Ideas which involve with very high budget or very difficult manufacturing process, my passion will drop and step out from the team. This behavior is so weak that it reflects my pessimistic thinking and unwillingness.

Ways to improve is to be more risk taking!

Instead of banning an idea immediately, allow ideas to come in from different perspectives. Instead of banning some of the idea which seem unrealistic at a time, give room to develop and if logically I really disagree, back up by research and evidence, then explain to the team why the idea is not working. If there is no research to back up the fault of the idea, it means that I shoud give it a go!

>valuing personal intuition over experimentation

I have to admit before the push from MACE class, even coming out from an Art Uni. I do not like prototype and experimentation. Once again it because of my lack of confidence in some risky ideas and unwillingness. I only put effort into things that I can guarantee myself a success. IT IS SUCH A BAD HABIT.

Ways to improve this is I believe is encouragement. Lots and lots of encouragements and the influences from MACE has helped me a lot  and so it makes the title of this post one of the aims for this year

A bit less thinking and a bit more doing

Filed under: Design thinking

Web design Class 1 & 2

So the Mace class is split in two groups for our web design class, according to our level of knowledge in building a web, advance or basic.

I have done my entire website in Dreamweaver and also tried some flash but not anything on top of that. So we have been focusing the format of site, how to design the primary and secondary page. We also got introduced that by paying or putting some extra add-ons, it’s very simple to personalise the format and build a site with the help of wordpress. Also if we happened to know a bit an action scripts, we can also change a lot of the details.

Also, we got introduced to Google Adwords, or some free tools (SEO) we can found the best way to promote our sites. More amazingly,  with Google stat, we can found out in what way does people get to know our sites, what is the highest search words. How long does people has to wait till one page is loaded, how long do they stayed at your sites in average. So by knowing this info, I can track down very easily what I should do more in order to improve the popularity or your site, or other targets.

I am not 100% knowing that I can manage that but still its a good place to start!

The 2nd class we focused more towards how to handle our clients as a freelancer.This class is useful for people like us with limited experiences. I think i want to mentioned is its important that we identify and FIRED the BAD clients. At this beginning stage of being a freelancer, I am over drown with take a lot of jobs to build up portfolio/ experiences. Sometimes I come with a bad client, I would still suck with the unfairness and thought this is a must-take for new graduates until we can process to the next stage, APPARENTLY NOT!

It’s no good to keep any of them and I will not learn anything from them, they will only brings in more bad contacts and poor clients. I guess it still hard to say no to a job when I come to opportunities but after this class I have a deep thought about it and knowing how I can drop this like a bad habit and attracted to the GOOD client.

Filed under: Class Reflection

Pier’s Class I

First of all, I want to say this is an excellent class!! I will always remember what I have experienced today. We talked a lot about creative leadership and have some very inspiring activities together. There are  a few points I want to share here.

The raw materials of Creative Leadership
– ‘Constraints.’ i.e. Time constraints,  environment constraints and a open-mind to allow the birth of a good idea.
– ‘Principles.’ Creativity needs good principles but not limitations in terms of the working styles and format.

Three fears of a Creative Individuals
– fears of being wrong, being rude, seemingly mad.

Piers also explained what is an artist’s mind in his views, his belief is that ‘nothing is come from nothing’, everything must have a cause or a reason.  if you come across difficulties and got stuck with a creative process. It’s not too much to worry about, ‘metamorphosis  is unstoppable”, if you go nothing, it will still change!

This is so similar to my final year project for my undergraduate degree, I design a book and try to express a statement “allow unresolved“, it is an abstract psychological approach. It was about a year ago that I produced that, I still have a very high acceptance of this method of thinking, however I could have explained it further with the support of Pier’s idea. Also, where I was reading the articles written by Piers, the way how he express abstract idea taught me a lot and I could have express my idea in a better way. I am glad that I have a chance to have a class with him, it really do means a lot to me as we are similar kind of artists mentally!

Filed under: Design thinking, Leadership

Notes from Leadership Sessions

Anyway, these is the notes I drop down from listening and discussing through the class of leadership, I am fairy new to this area therefore I learn a lot in this session and of course I will need further research.

Definitions of leadership approaches in 10 words.

1. Trait Approach – Born to be.

2. Contingency Approach – Best fit/ Keep Changing.

3. Transformational Approach – a lot of changes, focus of direction, make engagement.

4. Transactional Approach – doesn’t matter whose the leader but success of the tasks.

5. Post Heroic Approach – no true ability, but people loves the idea so follow.

6. Narcissistic Approach – in all aspects, in their own image, self-obsession.

And finally one point to make, leadership is not necessary to be an individual, it can be an IDEA.

>nicely finished<

Filed under: Leadership

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